A Short Guide to Russian Iconography
Russian icons are an exceptional phenomenon that occupies an important place in the history of world culture and Christianity. Russian iconography is characterized by a complex system of symbols and specific painting features. Every detail is thought out by an iconographer who, in turn, views icon painting as a highly spiritual process. In this blog post, we describe the main features of Russian icons, which differentiate them from other types of religious art.
A short guide to Russian iconography
1. Iconographic schools
The history of Russian icons is abundant. The leading place is held by the famous iconographic schools, each possessing specific characteristics. Some of the most notable include Palekh, Novgorod, Moscow, and Vladimir-Suzdal schools of iconography. Palekh icons, for example, were mostly painted in red and gold colors, with many adornments. All icon painting centers influenced each other, which led to the appearance of such a unique phenomenon as Russian iconography.
2. Canonical images of saints
Russian icons have their canons. It is known that the rules of painting images, colors, and shapes were borrowed from Byzantium. However, they were extended and transformed by Russian iconographers. Every detail (clothing, facial features, landscape, number of saints, etc.) in a Russian icon is meant to help the viewer understand the meaning of the image.
3. Rich symbolism
Symbols are the key to understanding icons. Russian icons are full of symbols and have many references to the Bible and other religious texts. Even such detail as hand gestures has its purpose and sacred meaning. It should also be emphasized that each color is used by the iconographer for a reason. For example, the main color of the icons of the Transfiguration is white, as it symbolizes the presence of the Holy Spirit.
4. Golden background
The golden background is a striking feature of Russian iconography. This color symbolizes divine light and represents the spiritual world that stands out against the earthly one. Therefore, almost all famous antique Russian icons were painted using golden colors. Gold was present in the background and the clothing of Jesus Christ, the Mother of God, and the saints.
5. Reverse perspective
Reverse perspective is one of the key features of Russian icons. It is a method of painting images and objects in the background larger than those in the front. Due to the reverse perspective, a viewer finds themselves within the icon.
Russian iconography is an important part of the development and existence of Orthodox Christian religion and world culture. With these features, it stands out brightly among other forms of religious painting.